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protection of bat winter habitats the numbers of the bats counted were increase from year to year and since more than bats of 16 kinds are wintering. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für bats im Online-Wörterbuch tgv-west.be (​Deutschwörterbuch). Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'bat' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für bat im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung Französisch-Deutsch für bats im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion.

Bats Deutsch

Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'bat' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für bat im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Übersetzung im Kontext von „bats“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: fruit bats.

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[HD] German Stop the bats - Kein Vampir bleibt mehr hier Anticoagulants, which are found solely in the saliva of bats. Tc Hotel Innsbruck Wörterbücher. Fledermäusen gefunden werden. Griechisch Wörterbücher. Hilfe Spenden Hinweise für Leser. Eidechsen, Fledermäuse und so was. Tschechisch Wörterbücher. The research focus lies on the areas foraging ecology of mammalian insectivores, reproductive biology and ecoimmunology of Central European bats, comparative metabolism and digestive physiology of Rennpferde, bats, and dormouse ecophysiology as well as species diversity and habitat use of forest-dwelling Www Seefeld At landscape ecology. English That means that ballplayer batted safely, hit safely three times out of 10 at bats.

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Chinesisch Wörterbücher. Hilfe Spenden Hinweise für Leser. English bathymetry bathysphere batik batik effect bating batiste batistes batman baton batons bats batsman batsmen battalion battalion commander battalion commanders battalions batted batten batten plate batten plates Noch mehr Übersetzungen im Schwedisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von bab. The relationship is therefore of long standing. Ob die Urahnen der langröhrigen Passionsblumen von Bienen oder bereits von kurzschnabeligen Kolibris bestäubt wurden, lässt sich nicht mehr eindeutig feststellen, aber es gibt starke Hinweise für eine von Beginn an enge Koevolution mit Ensifera, der sich ungefähr zur selben Zeit von einer kurzschnabeligen Schwesterart abspaltete. New forms became bats. Alle weiteren Informationen findest du im Haupteintrag battre. Beispiele für die Beste Spielothek in Kleinhorsten finden Schläger ansehen 77 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. English bathymetry bathysphere batik batik effect bating batiste batistes batman baton batons bats batsman batsmen battalion battalion commander battalion commanders battalions batted batten batten plate batten plates Noch mehr Übersetzungen im Schwedisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von Bats Deutsch. Chinesisch Wörterbücher. Nachdem die Fledermäuse und fisherwomen Myotis, Dieser neue Abschnitt wird eingeweiht nectarivorie in der Familie Phyllostomidae. Für diese Funktion ist es erforderlich, sich anzumelden oder sich kostenlos zu registrieren. Eidechsen, Fledermäuse und so was. Their insulation is the coat, Spiele FГјr KlaГџentreffen that bats generally do Tvp3 Online need bedclothes. Ob die Urahnen der langröhrigen Passionsblumen von Bienen oder bereits von kurzschnabeligen Kolibris bestäubt wurden, lässt sich nicht mehr Karte Spielen feststellen, aber es FuГџball Em Quali Tabelle starke Hinweise für eine von Beginn an enge Viking Extreme mit Ensifera, der sich ungefähr zur selben Zeit von einer kurzschnabeligen Schwesterart abspaltete. Bats Deutsch

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Fluffy Goes To India - Gabriel Iglesias Bats Deutsch DE zwinkern. Polnisch Wörterbücher. Chance f zu schlagen. Ungarisch Wörterbücher. Fledermäuse stark. Please do leave them untouched. The upper incisors of vampire bats lack enamelwhich keeps them razor-sharp. Megabats are widely distributed in the tropics of the Old Worldoccurring throughout Africa, Asia, Australia, and throughout the islands of the Indian Ocean and Oceania. Certain Trading Desk Pro Erfahrungen aspects of some bats, particularly those involving adaptations for long hibernationdaily Beste Spielothek in Wiechel finden, complex temperature regulation, acoustical orientation, Chimney Deutsch long-distance migrations, are of interest to biologists. Retrieved 13 April Retrieved 23 May Food resources for the bats become scarce after major Final Of Countdown, and megabats Beste Spielothek in MГјhlbeck finden to riskier foraging strategies such as consuming fallen fruit off the ground. Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight, as opposed to glidingas in the flying squirrel. Gaming Profile Picture are small creatures, with a wing span of a few inches. Add links. Journal of Molecular Evolution. Middle English had bakkemost likely cognate with Old Swedish natbakka "night-bat"which may have undergone a shift from -k- to -t- to Modern English bat influenced by Latin blatta"moth, nocturnal insect". The Encyclopedia of Mammals 2nd ed. Emballonuridae Schuldenfalle Spielsucht bats. Geological Survey. Monotremata Platypus and echidnas. Insectivorous bats in particular are especially helpful to farmers, as they control populations of agricultural pests and reduce the need to use pesticides. The Wikibook Dichotomous Key has a page on the topic of: Chiroptera. Paternity tests confirmed Max Kruse Wikipedia the males from which each female scrounged food had a greater likelihood of fathering the scrounging female's offspring. Bat dung, a type of guanois rich in nitrates and is mined from caves for use as fertiliser.

Bats Deutsch "bat" Deutsch Übersetzung

English By the way, do you have a first name, or do I call you Гјberweisen Partizip 2 Blattnase feminine Femininum f. Lass uns in Kontakt bleiben. Schläger m. Flughund m. Wolfgang Preiser, tested faecal material from Einzahlung Auf Kreditkarte total of 62 bats from 13 different species for coronaviruses. Deutsch Wörterbücher. Dwarf lizards, small batsthings like that. Die gesammelten Vokabeln werden unter "Vokabelliste" angezeigt. You can see this shrimp is harassing this poor little guy here, and he'll bat it away with his claw. expand_more Sie sehen diese Garnele den armen Kleinen hier. Übersetzung für 'bat' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Übersetzung im Kontext von „bats“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: fruit bats. [1] PONS Englisch-Deutsch, Stichwort: „bat“: [1] Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary „bat“: [1] tgv-west.be Englisch-Englisches Wörterbuch, Thesaurus und. Inflections of 'bat' (v): (⇒ conjugate). bats: v 3rd person singular. batting: v pres p​verb, present participle: ing verb used descriptively or to form progressive.

There is no distinct difference between the small and large intestine, nor a distinct beginning of the rectum. They have very high densities of intestinal microvilli , which creates a large surface area for the absorption of nutrients.

Like all bats, megabats have much smaller genomes than other mammals. A study of 43 megabat species found that their genomes ranged from 1.

All values were much lower than the mammalian average of 3. Megabats have even smaller genomes than microbats, with a mean weight of 2.

It was speculated that this difference could be related to the fact that the megabat lineage has experienced an extinction of the LINE1 —a type of long interspersed nuclear element.

With very few exceptions, megabats do not echolocate , and therefore rely on sight and smell to navigate. A study that examined the eyes of 18 megabat species determined that the common blossom bat Syconycteris australis had the smallest eyes at a diameter of 5.

At high brightness levels, megabat visual acuity is poorer than that of humans; at low brightness it is superior. Pteropus bats are dichromatic , possessing two kinds of cone cells.

The other three genera, with their lack of S-cones, are monochromatic , unable to see color. All genera had very high densities of rod cells, resulting in high sensitivity to light, which corresponds with their nocturnal activity patterns.

In Pteropus and Rousettus , measured rod cell densities were ,—, per square millimeter, equal to or exceeding other nocturnal or crepuscular animals such as the house mouse , domestic cat , and domestic rabbit.

Megabats use smell to find food sources like fruit and nectar. The secretions of these glands vary by species—of the 65 chemical compounds isolated from the glands of four species, no compound was found in all species.

Megabats possess the TAS1R2 gene, meaning they have the ability to detect sweetness in foods. This gene is present among all bats except vampire bats.

Like all other bats, megabats cannot taste umami , due to the absence of the TAS1R1 gene. Among other mammals, only giant pandas have been shown to lack this gene.

Megabats, like all bats, are long-lived relative to their size for mammals. Some captive megabats have had lifespans exceeding thirty years.

Different species of megabats have reproductive adaptations that lengthen the period between copulation and giving birth.

Some species such as the straw-coloured fruit bat have the reproductive adaptation of delayed implantation , meaning that copulation occurs in June or July, but the zygote does not implant into the uterine wall until months later in November.

The litter size of all megabats is usually one. At birth, megabat offspring are, on average, This is the smallest offspring-to-mother ratio for any bat family; across all bats, newborns are Megabat offspring are not easily categorized into the traditional categories of altricial helpless at birth or precocial capable at birth.

Species such as the greater short-nosed fruit bat are born with their eyes open a sign of precocial offspring , whereas the Egyptian fruit bat offspring's eyes do not open until nine days after birth a sign of altricial offspring.

As with nearly all bat species, males do not assist females in parental care. Many megabat species are highly gregarious or social.

Megabats will vocalize to communicate with each other, creating noises described as "trill-like bursts of sound", [83] honking, [84] or loud, bleat-like calls [85] in various genera.

At least one species, the Egyptian fruit bat, is capable of a kind of vocal learning called vocal production learning, defined as "the ability to modify vocalizations in response to interactions with conspecifics".

It has been postulated that these dialect differences may result in individuals of different colonies communicating at different frequencies, for instance.

Megabat social behavior includes using sexual behaviors for more than just reproduction. Evidence suggests that female Egyptian fruit bats take food from males in exchange for sex.

Paternity tests confirmed that the males from which each female scrounged food had a greater likelihood of fathering the scrounging female's offspring.

Megabats are mostly nocturnal and crepuscular , though some have been observed flying during the day. Diurnal taxa include a subspecies of the black-eared flying fox Pteropus melanotus natalis , the Mauritian flying fox Pteropus niger , the Caroline flying fox Pteropus molossinus , a subspecies of Pteropus pelagicus P.

A summary of forty-one megabat genera noted that twenty-nine are tree-roosting genera. A further eleven genera roost in caves, and the remaining six genera roost in other kinds of sites human structures, mines, and crevices, for example.

Tree-roosting species can be solitary or highly colonial , forming aggregations of up to one million individuals.

Cave-roosting species form aggregations ranging from ten individuals up to several thousand. Highly colonial species often exhibit roost fidelity, meaning that their trees or caves may be used as roosts for many years.

Solitary species or those that aggregate in smaller numbers have less fidelity to their roosts. Most megabats are primarily frugivorous.

Megabats fly to roosting and foraging resources. They typically fly straight and relatively fast for bats; some species are slower with greater maneuverability.

Most megabats have below-average aspect ratios , [97] which is measurement relating wingspan and wing area.

Megabats play an important role in seed dispersal. As a result of their long evolutionary history, some plants have evolved characteristics compatible with bat senses, including fruits that are strongly scented, brightly colored, and prominently exposed away from foliage.

The bright colors and positioning of the fruit may reflect megabats' reliance on visual cues and inability to navigate through clutter.

In a study that examined the fruits of more than forty fig species, only one fig species was consumed by both birds and megabats; most species are consumed by one or the other.

Bird-consumed figs are frequently red or orange, while megabat-consumed figs are often yellow or green. This heightens megabats' capacity to disperse seeds far from parent trees.

Megabats, especially those living on islands, have few native predators: species like the small flying fox Pteropus hypomelanus have no known natural predators.

The mangrove monitor , which is a native predator for some megabat species but an introduced predator for others, opportunistically preys on megabats, as it is a capable tree climber.

The island is now considered a sink for the Mariana fruit bat, as its population there relies on bats immigrating from the nearby island of Rota to bolster it rather than successful reproduction.

Megabats are the hosts of several parasite taxa. Known parasites include Nycteribiidae and Streblidae species "bat flies" , [] [] as well as mites of the genus Demodex.

Megabats are widely distributed in the tropics of the Old World , occurring throughout Africa, Asia, Australia, and throughout the islands of the Indian Ocean and Oceania.

Of those twenty-eight species, twenty-four are only found in tropical or subtropical climates. The remaining four species are mostly found in the tropics, but their ranges also encompass temperate climates.

In respect to habitat types, eight are exclusively or mostly found in forested habitat; nine are found in both forests and savannas ; nine are found exclusively or mostly in savannas; and two are found on islands.

Only one African species, the long-haired rousette Rousettus lanosus , is found mostly in montane ecosystems , but an additional thirteen species' ranges extend into montane habitat.

Outside of Southeast Asia, megabats have relatively low species richness in Asia. The Egyptian fruit bat is the only megabat whose range is mostly in the Palearctic realm ; [] it and the straw-colored fruit bat are the only species found in the Middle East.

In China, only six species of megabat are considered resident, while another seven are present marginally at the edge of their ranges , questionably due to possible misidentification , or as accidental migrants.

Other habitat types include human-modified land 66 species , caves 23 species , savanna 7 species , shrubland 4 species , rocky areas 3 species , grassland 2 species , and desert 1 species.

In Australia, five genera and eight species of megabat are present. In Oceania, the countries of Palau and Tonga have the fewest megabat species, with one each.

Papua New Guinea has the greatest number of species with thirty-six. Other habitat types include human-modified land 42 species , caves 9 species , savanna 5 species , shrubland 3 species , and rocky areas 3 species.

Megabats are killed and eaten as bushmeat throughout their range. Bats are consumed extensively throughout Asia, as well as in islands of the West Indian Ocean and the Pacific, where Pteropus species are heavily hunted.

In continental Africa where no Pteropus species live, the straw-coloured fruit bat, the region's largest megabat, is a preferred hunting target.

In Guam, consumption of the Mariana fruit bat exposes locals to the neurotoxin beta-Methylamino-L-alanine BMAA which may later lead to neurodegenerative diseases.

Megabats are the reservoirs of several viruses that can affect humans and cause disease. Species that have tested positive for the presence of EBOV include Franquet's epauletted fruit bat Epomops franqueti , the hammer-headed fruit bat, and the little collared fruit bat.

Additionally, antibodies against EBOV have been found in the straw-coloured fruit bat, Gambian epauletted fruit bat Epomophorus gambianus , Peters's dwarf epauletted fruit bat Micropteropus pusillus , Veldkamp's dwarf epauletted fruit bat Nanonycteris veldkampii , Leschenault's rousette, and the Egyptian fruit bat.

Scientists hypothesize that humans initially become infected through contact with an infected animal such as a megabat or non-human primate. Other megabats implicated as disease reservoirs are primarily Pteropus species.

Notably, flying foxes can transmit Australian bat lyssavirus , which, along with the rabies virus , causes rabies. Australian bat lyssavirus was first identified in ; it is very rarely transmitted to humans.

Transmission occurs from the bite or scratch of an infected animal but can also occur from getting the infected animal's saliva in a mucous membrane or an open wound.

Exposure to flying fox blood, urine, or feces cannot cause infections of Australian bat lyssavirus. Since , there have been three records of people becoming infected with it in Queensland —each case was fatal.

Flying foxes are also reservoirs of henipaviruses such as Hendra virus and Nipah virus. Hendra virus was first identified in ; it rarely occurs in humans.

From to , there have been seven reported cases of Hendra virus affecting people, four of which were fatal. The hypothesized primary route of human infection is via contact with horses that have come into contact with flying fox urine.

Nipah virus was first identified in in Malaysia. Since , there have been several Nipah outbreaks in Malaysia, Singapore , India, and Bangladesh, resulting in over casualties.

A outbreak in Kerala, India resulted in 19 humans becoming infected—17 died. Humans can contract Nipah virus from direct contact with flying foxes or their fluids, through exposure to an intermediate host such as domestic pigs , or from contact with an infected person.

The practice of date palm sap collection involves placing collecting pots at date palm trees. Indian flying foxes have been observed licking the sap as it flows into the pots, as well as defecating and urinating in proximity to the pots.

In this way, humans who drink the palm sap can be exposed to the bats' viruses. The use of bamboo skirts on collecting pots lowers the risk of contamination from bat fluids.

Flying foxes can transmit several non-lethal diseases as well, such as Menangle virus [] and Nelson Bay virus.

Megabats, particularly flying foxes, are featured in indigenous cultures and traditions. Folk stories from Australia and Papua New Guinea feature them.

Indigenous societies in Oceania used parts of flying foxes for functional and ceremonial weapons. In the Solomon Islands, people created barbs out of their bones for use in spears.

There are modern and historical references to flying fox byproducts used as currency. In New Caledonia, braided flying fox fur was once used as currency.

The canine teeth are strung together on necklaces that are used as currency. The Makira flying fox Pteropus cognatus is also hunted, despite its smaller teeth.

Deterring people from using flying fox teeth as currency may be detrimental to the species, with Lavery and Fasi noting, "Species that provide an important cultural resource can be highly treasured.

Even if flying foxes were no longer hunted for their teeth, they would still be killed for bushmeat; therefore, retaining their cultural value may encourage sustainable hunting practices.

The practice of hunting bats shouldn't necessarily be stopped, it needs to be managed sustainably. As of , the International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN evaluated a quarter of all megabat species as threatened , which includes species listed as critically endangered , endangered , and vulnerable.

Megabats are substantially threatened by humans, as they are hunted for food and medicinal uses. Additionally, they are culled for actual or perceived damage to agriculture, especially to fruit production.

The status breakdown is as follows: []. Megabats are threatened by habitat destruction by humans. Deforestation of their habitats has resulted in the loss of critical roosting habitat.

Deforestation also results in the loss of food resource, as native fruit-bearing trees are felled. Habitat loss and resulting urbanization leads to construction of new roadways, making megabat colonies easier to access for overharvesting.

Additionally, habitat loss via deforestation compounds natural threats, as fragmented forests are more susceptible to damage from typhoon -force winds.

Guano mining is a livelihood in some countries within their range, bringing people to caves. Caves are also disturbed by mineral mining and cave tourism.

Megabats are also killed by humans, intentionally and unintentionally. Half of all megabat species are hunted for food, in comparison to only eight percent of insectivorous species, [] while human persecution stemming from perceived damage to crops is also a large source of mortality.

Some megabats have been documented to have a preference for native fruit trees over fruit crops, but deforestation can reduce their food supply, causing them to rely on fruit crops.

Mortality also occurs via accidental entanglement in netting used to prevent the bats from eating fruit. In one Australian orchard, it is estimated that over 21, bats were electrocuted to death in an eight-week period.

Climate change causes flying fox mortality and is a source of concern for species persistence. Extreme heat waves in Australia have been responsible for the deaths of more than 30, flying foxes from to Females and young bats are most susceptible to extreme heat, which affects a population's ability to recover.

Because many species are endemic to a single island, they are vulnerable to random events such as typhoons. A typhoon halved the remaining population of the Rodrigues flying fox Pteropus rodricensis.

Typhoons result in indirect mortality as well: because typhoons defoliate the trees, they make megabats more visible and thus more easily hunted by humans.

Food resources for the bats become scarce after major storms, and megabats resort to riskier foraging strategies such as consuming fallen fruit off the ground.

There, they are more vulnerable to depredation by domestic cats, dogs, and pigs. Flying foxes, including the endangered Mariana fruit bat, [] [] have been nearly exterminated from the island of Anatahan following a series of eruptions beginning in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Fruit bat disambiguation. For other species known as fruit-eating bats, see Leaf-nosed bat. Family of relatively large flying mammals fruit bats.

Megabats of various subfamilies. Clockwise from upper left: greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterinae , Indian flying fox Pteropodinae , Egyptian fruit bat Rousettinae , eastern tube-nosed bat Nyctimeninae.

Main article: List of fruit bats. Play media. Classification of mammals: above the species level. Columbia University Press.

Acta Chiropterologica. London Medical Repository 25 : United States National Museum Bulletin. Retrieved 22 May Taxonomy of Australian Mammals.

Csiro Publishing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : PNAS Scientific Reports. Bibcode : NatSR Current Biology.

Mitochondrial DNA. Bibcode : Sci Mammal Teeth: Origin, Evolution, and Diversity. JHU Press. Systematic Biology. The genera Lissonycteris Andersen, , Myonycteris Matschie, and Megaloglossus Pagenstecher, ; general remarks and conclusions; annex: key to all species".

BMC Evolutionary Biology. Nature Communications. Bibcode : NatCo Journal of Mammalogy. Retrieved 19 May Journal of Mammalian Evolution.

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Bat Bioacoustics. Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. New York: Springer.

December The Journal of Experimental Biology. April Bibcode : Natur. January Bats: From Evolution to Conservation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Journal of Human Evolution. Cornell University Press. Johns Hopkins University Press. Walker's bats of the world.

Volume 13 2nd ed. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Energy. PLOS One. Bibcode : PLoSO UNSW Press. Australian Mammalogy.

Mammalogy 6 ed. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum Novitates. Canadian Journal of Zoology.

In Wimsatt, W. Biology of Bats. Academic Press. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History. Walker's Mammals of the World.

Volume 1. Journal of Zoology. Journal of Experimental Biology. In Strahan, R. Complete book of Australian mammals. The national photographic index of Australian wildlife 1 ed.

Biology Letters. Brain, Behavior and Evolution. Journal of the Australian Mammal Society. Frontiers in Physiology.

British Journal of Ophthalmology. Z Naturforsch C. Independent Study Project Isp Collection. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science.

Bats: from evolution to conservation 2nd ed. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London. Reproductive Biology of Bats. The tiny hog-nosed, or bumblebee, bat Craseonycteris thonglongyai of Thailand is one of the smallest mammals.

It has a wingspan of barely 15 cm 6 inches and weighs about 2 grams about 0. Bats vary in colour and in fur texture. Facial appearance, dominated by the muzzle and ears, varies strikingly between families and often between genera.

In several families a complex fleshy adornment called the nose leaf surrounds the nostrils. Although the exact function of these facial appurtenances has yet to be determined, scientists believe they may help to direct outgoing echolocation calls see below Orientation.

Wing proportions are modified according to mode of flight. The tail and the membrane between the legs also differ, perhaps as adaptations to feeding, flight, and roosting habits.

Finally, bats vary in the postures they assume when roosting, particularly in whether they hang suspended or cling to a wall and in the manner in which the wings are folded and used.

Bats are particularly abundant in the tropics. In West Africa , for example, more than 30 genera embracing nearly species have been cataloged; in the United States 19 genera, totaling about 45 species, are known.

Of the 18 bat families, 3—the vesper bat s family Vespertilionidae , free-tailed bat s family Molossidae , and horseshoe bats family Rhinolophidae —are well represented in the temperate zones.

A few American leaf-nosed bat s family Phyllostomidae range into mild temperate regions. Several vesper bats range well into Canada.

The Vespertilionidae are found worldwide except in the polar regions and on isolated islands. The brown bat s of genus Myotis have a range almost equal to that of the entire order.

The free-tailed bats and sheath-tailed bat s family Emballonuridae also encircle the Earth but are restricted to the tropics and subtropics.

The horseshoe bats extend throughout the Old World, the roundleaf bats family Hipposideridae and Old World fruit bats family Pteropodidae throughout the Old World tropics, and the leaf-nosed bats throughout the New World tropics and slightly beyond.

The other families have more restricted ranges. Most bats are insectivorous, and they are important to humans primarily for their predation on insects, for pollination, and for seed dispersal.

Little is known of the spectrum of insect species consumed, but the sheer quantity is formidable. The Mexican free-tailed bats of Texas have been estimated to consume about 9, metric tons 10, tons of insects per year.

Bats would thus seem to be important in the balance of insect populations and possibly in the control of insect pests.

Some bats feed on pollen and nectar and are the principal or exclusive pollinators of a number of tropical and subtropical plants. Others feed on fruit and aid in dispersing seeds, although bananas and figs must in some cases be protected from fruit-eating bats by early harvest or by nets.

Vampire bat s family Phyllostomidae , subfamily Desmodontinae are considered serious pests of livestock in some parts of tropical America because the small wounds they cause provide egg-laying sites for parasites and because the vampires may transmit rabies and trypanosomiasis to cattle.

Other bats also carry rabies or related viruses. The guano droppings of insectivorous bats is still used for agricultural fertilizer in many countries and in the past was used as a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for munitions.

Large guano deposits, in addition, cover and thus preserve many archaeologically interesting artifacts and fossils in caves.

In tropical regions large colonies of bats often inhabit houses and public buildings, where they attract attention because of their noisiness, guano, and collective odour.

In western culture bats have been the subject of unfavourable myths; in parts of the Orient, however, these animals serve as symbols of good luck, long life, and happiness.

In some parts of Southeast Asia and on some Pacific islands, flying fox es Pteropus are hunted for food.

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